The Impact of Redlining in Real Estate
In the United States, the federal housing policy made it easier for white families to buy homes while discouraging black families from purchasing homes. Home equity is a huge source of generational wealth, and many families use home equity to fund big-ticket investments, such as college education. Unfortunately, redlining still occurs in many cities and neighborhoods. Read on to learn more about the impact of redlining on home values. And don’t forget to share this article with others!
The practice of redlining in real estate is a common and troubling example of this kind of discrimination. Historically, lenders were forbidden from lending to residents of certain neighborhoods because of their race. While this practice was banned by the Community Reinvestment Act of 1977, critics contend that the practice continues. Reverse redlining involves targeting certain neighborhoods for higher prices and unfair lending terms. It may be especially problematic in older urban neighborhoods and minority communities.
The practice is illegal and involves two or more real estate firms refusing to do business with a third. These practices are clearly against antitrust laws. In addition, real estate agents may steer buyers away from neighborhoods that are predominantly black or Hispanic for fear of losing business to those communities. As such, reverse redlining is a direct result of the real estate industry’s history of racial segregation.
Race-based exclusionary tactic
This practice is often celebrated as one of the progressive practices of the San Francisco Bay Area. But the reality is that the region pioneered new tactics of racial exclusion in housing. Its anti-Chinese land use ordinance was among the first in the country and was copied by other cities. In California, the San Francisco Bay Area has a rich history of racial discrimination in housing.
While the term “redlining” has come to represent historic race-based exclusionary tactics, this practice is often associated with racial steering, a practice whereby real estate agents steer Black buyers away from specific neighborhoods. Racial covenants bar Black buyers from purchasing homes, and such practices contributed to racial segregation in the United States. In the 1930s, the federal government launched homeownership programs to encourage home ownership. These government-insured mortgages were intended to prevent the massive wave of foreclosures that followed the Great Depression.
HOLC’s redlining maps
While redlining lasted for decades, new research has shed light on how a company such as Home Owners Loan Corporation used maps to guide investment decisions. In a new paper, HOLC’s redlining maps in real estate are embedded on a single map. The maps’ racial makeup is also revealed, revealing that neighborhoods were redlined largely because of their high Black population.
Redlining was a practice that was banned after the Fair Housing Act was passed in 1968, but the legacy of this discrimination extends beyond housing segregation. HOLC’s redlining maps in real estate reveal how government-sponsored housing programs affect minority neighborhoods. The programs have long been cited as contributing to racial segregation in the U.S., including a decline in educational opportunities. Furthermore, redlining has negative impacts on climate change, making minority neighborhoods more vulnerable to flooding and extreme heat. Despite the progress made since then, redlining will likely continue.
Effects of redlining on home values
One of the most damaging effects of redlining on the African American community is its lack of investment. Since the 1960s, black veterans migrated into white suburban neighborhoods. As the white population left, blacks moved in, driving down market values. Bank lenders followed market value by drawing red lines around neighborhoods, signaling areas they would not invest in. These boundaries are still in place, but their impact has been greatly diminished. In addition to the loss of home values, racial discrimination in housing has contributed to poor educational opportunities, crime, and other problems.
One study looked at 30 American cities to assess the extent to which redlining has affected neighborhoods’ values. The study found that neighborhoods once classified as “low-income” or “redlined” saw their median home values rise. The study also noted that those neighborhoods became middle-class, attracting more economic activity. These neighborhoods had changed their downtowns and showed less racial segregation. However, redlined neighborhoods in the South and West experienced greater inequality of wealth.
Impact on communities of color
Redlining encouraged lending practices that excluded communities of color from buying homes, based on race alone, rather than the potential value of neighborhoods. The rationale was that if Black Americans bought homes outside of redlined neighborhoods, those properties would decrease in value. The opposite happened, however: in areas where Black people could purchase homes, property values soared. Because of this disparity, homeowners were forced to pay exorbitant prices to purchase their homes.
The Center for Investigative Reporting studied the records of 61 metro areas. The results revealed that racial lending discrimination is still rampant, with banks blaming low credit scores for discrepancies in lending. The government, however, has taken steps to address this problem. The Community Reinvestment Act aims to improve financial institutions’ practices by reducing the amount of redlining in the housing market.