The material is intended for those who are interested in how to install an air conditioner in an apartment or house. It will not be difficult to understand the essence of the technology, but only a person with experience can do it extremely correctly.
The split system consists of two functional units, one of which must be installed outside the room, the other inside. These blocks are connected to each other by special tubes and cables. Such a communication system is intended exclusively for pumping freon from one unit to another, as well as for supplying electricity to an external unit. The standard split system, which is installed everywhere in residential buildings and apartments, does not mix air from the street, that is, it does not perform the function of ventilation – it only cools or heats the air inside the room. Therefore, air ducts connecting the internal and external units are not laid during the installation of the air conditioner. The operation of the standard split system can be compared with the operation of the cooling system of a conventional refrigerator – it also does not perform ventilation of the refrigerating chamber,
Installation of air conditioner is necessarily accompanied by high-quality sealing of all communication pipes. Otherwise, there is a risk that the coolant (freon) will leak, and this will lead to the failure of the air conditioner after some time.
To install the most common household air conditioners (these are 2-2.5 kW models), you need to use copper pipes of different diameters. 1/4 inch and 3/8 inch tubes are suitable for these purposes. The existing difference in diameters is explained by the fact that the freon circulates behind these tubes in its different states of aggregation. From the internal block, freon moves in a gaseous state, from the external – in a liquid state. A thinner tube is required for the liquid phase than for the gaseous phase.
When installing the air conditioner , it is very important to perform high-quality thermal insulation of the tubes through which freon circulates. They must be isolated from the environment and from each other. If thermal insulation is neglected, the efficiency of the cooling system will decrease significantly (at constant electricity consumption), and condensate from the air will naturally settle on the tube that brings the liquid freon to the indoor unit.
In addition to copper tubes, as already mentioned above, the indoor and outdoor units are connected by a special electrical cable. Such a connection is necessary for supplying power to the external unit, as well as for transmitting the control signal, since the unit responsible for controlling the operation of the air conditioning system is located in the internal unit.
During the operation of the air conditioner, condensate forms in its internal unit. This liquid must be drained through a specially designated separate tube outside the premises. This pipe is laid together with other communications, but it is not connected to the external unit, but is left open so that the condensate flows quietly along the wall or simply drips. In some cases (for example, in elite multi-apartment buildings), this position of the drain pipe and method of releasing condensate is unacceptable. The only way out of such a situation is to organize draining of the condensate into the sewage system.
The ideal option for installing an air conditioner is when the bundle of cables and tubes of inter-block communication (route) is installed in a special gutter in the wall and is completely bricked up (in the strobe). This option is the most beneficial from an aesthetic point of view, but it may not always be used. Laying in the strobe is carried out in those cases when repairs are being carried out or planned in the room. If the installation of the air conditioner is carried out after the finishing of the walls has been completed, then the route is made along the surface of the wall.
If the inter-block communications are hidden in the wall, it is important to remember where exactly they are laid. Otherwise, there is a risk of damaging the track when trying to hang a shelf or picture on the wall. This is especially relevant in cases where the condensate drains into the sewage system and the drainage pipe has to be laid almost along the entire length of the apartment. At the same time, the tube must have a constant good slope along its entire length, without horizontal areas in which water can accumulate and clogs can form.
Stages of air conditioner installation
Choosing a location
Before installing the air conditioner, you should carefully choose its location. The indoor unit should not be located in the immediate vicinity of the place of sleep, rest or work of the residents of the apartment. Prolonged stay under a stream of cold air does not affect health in the best way. At the same time, it is worth abandoning the option when the external and internal blocks are located far from each other, as this leads to the need to lay a long track. It is also worth considering that there should be no obstacles in the path of the cold jet at a distance of at least three meters. Otherwise, electricity will be spent not on cooling the air in the room, but on cooling this obstacle.
Preparation for installation
If the place for installation has already been determined, the premises for installation work should be prepared. The area should be cleaned of foreign objects as much as possible, and those objects that cannot be removed should be protected from accidental damage and debris that will be generated during the installation of the air conditioner .
Plastering of walls and preparation of openings for inter-block communications
If the track is planned to be hidden in the strobe, then the creation of all channels, as well as holes, should be carried out even before the installation of the external unit. In those cases when the inter-block communications will run along the surface of the wall and hide in a special box, only drilling is carried out in the wall for the output of inter-block communications. In the first option, the process of installing the air conditioner takes place in two stages. The first stage involves the installation of the external unit and the laying of a hidden route, the second – the installation of the internal unit and commissioning and adjustment works. At the same time, the second stage can be carried out only when the decoration of the walls has already been completely completed.
Installation of the external unit
The outdoor unit is usually installed directly under the window of the room in which the indoor unit of the air conditioner will be placed, or under another, nearest window. At the same time, the top of the block should be located at or slightly below the lower edge of the window. This position is the most advantageous in terms of aesthetics and in terms of ease of access to the equipment in case of the need for any service work. Installation is carried out on special brackets, the external unit is firmly fixed, which prevents the occurrence of vibrations during the operation of the air conditioner. After the installation is completed, you should immediately connect the inter-block communications (if they are already laid), which will protect the pipes from moisture getting into them.
Installation of the indoor unit and connection of communications
The indoor unit must be installed on a flat surface and firmly fixed in a horizontal position. If you allow a skew, then the condensate will not drain as it should. After both blocks have been installed, they can be connected to each other with inter-block communications. This is a responsible stage, as it is very important to achieve the highest quality tightness of the connections in order to prevent the leakage of the coolant.
After all the tubes are properly connected, the system should be evacuated. Vacuuming pursues the goal of removing air and moisture from the tubes, as they have a negative effect on the coolant. For this, you should use a vacuum pump and a pressure gauge. If you do not perform this operation, it will negatively affect the power of the air conditioner, and may also cause the compressor that pumps freon to break. The presence of moisture in the system significantly shortens the service life and trouble-free operation of the equipment.
After vacuuming, you can run freon into the system. In new air conditioners, the cooling liquid is in the external unit of the device under pressure.
When the refrigerant fills the system, you can start the air conditioner. Activate the testing program – it is available in every model. If during operation in the test mode the equipment does not vibrate and everything goes as it should, you can try to turn on other modes and check how they function. You should also check whether there is a freon leak, whether the system drainage works normally, etc. If there are no malfunctions and there is no need to eliminate anything, then you can fill up with freon or, on the contrary, drain it.
Installation of air conditioners is a responsible task that is best entrusted to professional Sacramento electricians. Self-installation is attractive from a financial point of view, but it is something like a lottery – there is a fairly high probability of damaging the equipment by doing something wrong or not taking into account some important detail.